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Monthly Archives: December 2018

We have distilled decades of experience at the intersection of law, business and finance into a suite of articles to help our clients make sense of business valuation, forensic accounting, and litigation support. Please visit our site regularly for our latest content.

  According to a recent Delaware Division of Corporations Annual Report, more than 66% of the Fortune 500 companies are registered in the State of Delaware.  That being said, it is not surprising that the Delaware Chancery Court is widely recognized as one of the nation’s leading courts in settling shareholder appraisal disputes. Delaware affords protection to shareholders by granting appraisal rights within Delaware §262 where fair value is defined §262(h): After the Court determines the stockholders entitled to an appraisal, the appraisal proceeding shall be conducted in accordance with the rules of the Court of Chancery, including any rules specifically governing appraisal proceedings. Through such proceeding the Court shall determine the fair value of the shares exclusive of any element of value arising from the accomplishment or expectation of the merger or consolidation, together with interest, if any, to be paid upon the amount determined to be the fair value. In determining such fair value, the Court shall take into account all relevant factors. This definition can cause an appraiser to consider alternative methodologies and/or apply discounts and premiums differently than for different jurisdictions or for tax valuations. As you may be aware, Fair market value as defined by Revenue ruling 59-60 is:  “the price at which the property would change hands between a willing buyer and a willing seller when the former is not under any compulsion to buy and the latter is not under any compulsion to sell, both parties having reasonable knowledge of relevant facts.” The […]


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2018 Year End Tax Strategies

Posted in Divorce & Matrimony, on Dec 2018, By: Mark S. Gottlieb

  It seems like a lifetime ago that I sat down at my desk with a pile of folders ready to attack “tax season”.  Perhaps it was.  It’s been almost 30 years since I moved to be “exclusive” with business valuation, forensic accounting and litigation support. Although I am no longer routinely prepare income tax returns, I still keep up with the tax code – for no other reason than to be fluent when asked to lecture at various legal conferences or provide expert testimony. So, in the season of giving, I thought I would provide some thoughts regarding a few selected tax issues you should consider before the end of the year. Year-end tax strategies for accrual-basis businesses The last month or so of the year offers accrual-basis taxpayers an opportunity to make some timely moves that might enable them to save money on their 2018 tax bills. The key to saving tax as an accrual-basis taxpayer is to properly record and recognize expenses that were incurred this year but won’t be paid until 2019. Doing so will enable you to deduct those expenses on your 2018 federal tax return. Common examples of such expenses include commissions, salaries and wages; payroll taxes; advertising; and interest. Also look into expenses such as utilities, insurance and property taxes. You can also accelerate deductions into 2018 without paying for the expenses in 2018 by charging them on a credit card. (This works for cash-basis taxpayers, too.) In addition, review all prepaid expense accounts […]


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  When planning to merge with or acquire another company, a business owner needs to identify what’s actually being sold and estimate what those assets are really worth. Often the most valuable assets — such as goodwill, brand names, customer lists and patents — don’t appear on the balance sheet. A pre acquisition purchase price allocation helps an owner determine whether a purchase price is reasonable. In addition, how the purchase price is divvied up on the acquirer’s balance sheet has an impact on future earnings — thus affecting the transaction’s perceived success. Identify the assets Under Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP), companies that merge with or acquire another must allocate the purchase price among the assets and liabilities acquired according to Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) 805 (formerly covered by Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 141R). The first step in any purchase price allocation is to identify all tangible and intangible assets included in the deal. Examples of tangible assets are accounts receivable, equipment and inventory. To help categorize identifiable intangible assets, ASC 805 provides a framework based on whether the asset is related to: Marketing (trademarks, noncompete agreements, Internet domain names), Customers (customer lists, production backlogs), Artistic practice (copyrighted books, articles, photographs), Contracts (royalty agreements, franchises, leases, employment contracts), or Technology (patents, trade secrets, in-process research and development, computer software). The acquirer must estimate a useful life over which to amortize each intangible asset. But some intangible assets, such as brand names and in-process research and development, may […]


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If I had to do all over again I would have placed an empty pickle jar besides my desk and throw in a dollar every time a business owner proclaimed his/her business would be nothing without them.  At times, I feel the same way. But, my education and experience tells me otherwise.  That being said, if the business owner or another individual disproportionately accounts for the business’s success, it’s important to consider whether the risk of losing such a “key person” warrants an adjustment to the company’s value.   What’s a key person discount? A key person discount may be appropriate if a single owner or employee who would be difficult to replace is responsible for much of the company’s profitability and continued viability, especially when none of the company’s management team members are qualified to assume the key person’s responsibilities. The discount — usually a specific dollar amount or percentage — is taken to reflect the actual or potential departure of a key person. Instead of taking a separate, discrete discount at the entity level, some experts incorporate a key person discount into their valuation methodology. For example, under the income approach, a valuation expert might adjust the discount rate, capitalization rate or projected cash flows to reflect key person risks. Alternatively, an expert who uses the market approach might adjust the pricing multiples to reflect this risk. When are key person risks relevant? Owning a small business isn’t enough to justify a key person discount. These adjustments are […]


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